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Toddler presents with fever, malaise

Determine 1. Conjunctival erythema with out discharge. Supply: James H. Brien, DO.

He’s despatched for admission. Admitting lab outcomes present the next:

Determine 2. Generalized polymorphous rash. Supply: James H. Brien, DO.

What’s your analysis?

A. Kawasaki illness

B. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in youngsters

C. Rubeola

D. Streptococcal scarlet fever

Reply and dialogue:

With 1 extra day of fever, this little one would match the diagnostic standards for Kawasaki illness, or KD (alternative A), which consists of 5 days of fever, bulbar conjunctivitis with limbic sparing, a polymorphous rash, extremity modifications (swelling and/or erythema), nonsuppurative cervical lymphadenitis and mucous membrane irritation of the mouth and lips. Some can even rely irritation of the urethra or vagina or the perianal mucocutaneous junction. Many consultants recommend making the analysis earlier than the fifth day of fever to keep away from a delay in remedy if the factors are there with out one other rationalization. Moreover, even when there’s proof of a viral URI, as on this affected person, that ought to not exclude the analysis KD as a result of this will happen concurrently. Nevertheless, if the conjunctivitis is purulent, and/or the erythema of the throat is suppurative, the analysis of KD shouldn’t be made utilizing these standards as a result of they’d not be in keeping with KD however extra doubtless point out adenovirus. It could be extraordinarily unlikely for KD and adenovirus an infection to happen in the identical affected person on the identical time. To keep away from lacking a case of KD, standards have been established for individuals who lack sufficient standards. The AAP’s Crimson E book has an in depth chart to assist in the analysis of suspected incomplete KD (web page 459), which can be discovered right here.

Therapy of KD is with IV immune globulin (IVIg) of two g/kg. A couple of dose could also be wanted. Excessive-dose aspirin (80 to 100 mg/kg per day in 4 divided doses) is used till afebrile for 48 to 72 hours, adopted by low-dose aspirin (3 to five mg/kg per day). That is normally stopped by the heart specialist in follow-up. Repeat dosing of IVIg or different anti-inflammatory brokers, equivalent to infliximab or cyclosporin, must be on the recommendation of a KD knowledgeable. Because the affected person strikes by the acute stage and into the subacute-convalescent stage, they may sometimes have vital thrombocytosis and desquamation of the terminal digits and areas the place the rash was most intense.

The similarities between KD and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in youngsters (MIS-C) related to COVID-19 are mentioned intimately by Lee and colleagues in Frontiers in Pediatrics.

Rubeola — also referred to as measles or first illness — presents as an acute febrile sickness brought on by the measles virus, characterised by progressive fever, with cough, coryza and conjunctivitis (the “three Cs”), together with Koplik spots inside the first few days, and a morbilliform rash showing on day 3 or 4. The rash sometimes is first seen on the pinnacle and face, then quickly spreads right down to the higher extremities and trunk (Determine 3), with the confluence of lesions creating blotches of raised erythema. Prognosis is normally confirmed by serologic testing or by viral detection by PCR of oral or respiratory secretions or blood. Physicians should watch out for false positives of each strategies if the affected person has obtained an MMR immunization just lately. Therapy is supportive and consists of vitamin A supplementation (see the Crimson E book for extra particulars).


Determine 3. Morbilliform rash of measles. Supply: James H. Brien, DO.

Scarlet fever is a basic group A streptococcal (GAS) an infection with a diffuse, erythematous rash with a nice, papular rash, resembling sandpaper, together with a “strawberry tongue,” with out eye irritation. The main target of the GAS an infection may be wherever however normally within the posterior pharynx and tonsils.


American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Ailments. Crimson E book. Report of the Committee on Infectious Ailments. Academy of Pediatrics; 2021. Accessed Nov. 21, 2022.

Lee MS, et al. Entrance Pediatr. 2021;doi:10.3389/fped.2021.640118.

For extra info:

Brien is a member of the Healio Pediatrics Peer Perspective Board and an adjunct professor of pediatric infectious ailments at McLane Youngsters’s Hospital, Baylor Scott & White Well being, in Temple, Texas. He may be reached at



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